Islamic Republic of Pakistan was established in 1947, a country of 170 million people, full of natural resources and more than 60 years of independence but still not respected in the world community. In less than 30 years of independence, it’s one wing gets separated (Bangladesh). Remaining part till today is living on IMF, World Bank and foreign donations. Majority of the population is living in rural areas without basic necessities of life. It is a country where financial gap between rich and poor is widening day by day. From the last 10 years, extremism is increasing. What ever happens in the world it is almost understood even before investigations that it will have a link with Pakistan. Almost every kind of problem exists in Pakistan, including electricity load-shedding, bad economy, less educational facilities, less hospitals, inflation and no pure water in many parts. These problems exist in Pakistan right from its independence which as mentioned above was more than sixty years ago.
Despite it being rich on raw resources thus far Pakistan is a developing country with limited development in every era due to the problems it faces. In the following text we will shed some light on some of the major problems faced today by Pakistan as a country.
According to an analysis conducted by the government of Pakistan and published at hec. Gov .pk(the higher education commission of Pakistan) shows that the poverty has increased roughly from 30% to 40% during the past decade. Consider that if 40%of a country’s population is earning their life below the poverty-line in which the people are deprived of basic necessities of life such as clothing, shelter,food, education and medication, such families and their children will be forced to think of their survival only.
2. ILLITERACY :
Literacy is defined as persons aged 15 or above who can “read” and “write”.According to this definition, Pakistanis officially reported to have 50% literacy rate. Which means half of its population is illiterate. With such family backgrounds, inflation, poverty and child labor this rate is expected to increase in future. Even for those who are termed as “Literate” are only able to read and write, which in today’s technology oriented world is still considered as illiteracy. Majority of the people forming the top controlling tier is almost unaware of technologies and technical mindset. Thus, causing the country to adopt the new technologies at a snail’s speed.
3. Energy Crisis:
Electricity is the major Problem Pakistan facing today. Electricity in Pakistan is generated, transmitted, distributed and retail supplied by two vertically integrated public sector utilities: Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) for all of Pakistan (except Karachi), and the Karachi Electric Supply Corporation (KESC) for the City of Karachi and its surrounding areas. There are around 16 independent power producers that contributes significantly in electricity generation in Pakistan.
For years, the matter of balancing Pakistan’s supply against the demand for electricity has remained a largely unresolved matter. Pakistan faces a significant challenge in revamping its network responsible for the supply of electricity.
Contrary to Pakistani government and expatriate claims, Pakistan suffers from a massive electricity shortage. Electricity generation in Pakistan has shrunk by 50% in recent years due to an overreliance on hydroelectric power. In 2008, availability of power in Pakistan falls short of the population’s needs by 15% Pakistan was hit by its worst power crisis in 2007, after the assassination of Benazir Bhutto and the following riots. Production fell by 6000 Megawatts and massive blackouts followed suit. The blame was laid on the then president, Pervez Musharraf, and was instrumental in his defeat. Load Shedding (deliberate blackouts) and power blackouts have become severe in Pakistan in recent years. The main problem with Pakistan’s poor power generation is rising political instability, together with rising demands for power and lack of efficiency.
Installed capacity Electricity - total installed capacity: 19,505 MW (2007)
- Electricity – Sources (2007)
- fossil fuel – 12,580 MW – 65% of total
- hydro – 6,463 MW – 33% of total
- nuclear – 462 MW – 2% of total
- Electricity – production: 88.42 TWh (2005)
- Electricity – production by source (2003)
- fossil fuel: 63.7% of total
- hydro: 33.9% of total
- nuclear: 2.4% of total
4. Corruption and Political Instability
Pakistan is suffering from a fatal problem known as “Establishment”. Every vital department in Pakistan is controlled by the so called “Establishment”. Establishment is a network of key positions in almost all the departments in the country. This network provides support and safe backing to their “touts” to ensure that they remain in control. The roots of this establishment may very well be deep inside underworld and secret agencies of the dominating nations.
It is interesting to note that due to the international interference and manipulation the very same people that we label as corrupt just sometime ago, blame and rebuke, come back to govern us after a couple of years again and people welcome them with open arms. A common English saying goes as “fool me once, shame on you, fool me twice, shame on me”.
This is probably also the main reason why the political process in Pakistan is not let to prosper. Soon after its inception the sincere and loyal politicians were removed from the main stream and only dummy agents and rubber stamps are put in place, while all the decisions are made outside the country.
5. INTERNATIONAL INTERFERENCE
India is typically termed as a conventional enemy to Pakistan. As mentioned before the people of Pakistan need to be trained to think positively about their surroundings. We should learn a lesson from US and Canada’s cross border collaboration to improve their affairs and provide backing, why can’t Pakistan and India enter into such strengthening relationship?
Pakistan can never move forward with its proxy war politics with India and its involvement in the so-called US War on terrorism. It has to strike peace with India and other neighboring countries soon so that it can use its resources for its own people’s welfare and focus on its collective objectives.
Pakistan has more potential to be a developed country earlier than India. It has the resources and talent.yet it seems to sink lower by the day. India with a billion plus population has a million problems to handle. Yet the focus of India has been right and it shows in its 8% economic growth. Its time Pakistan learns this lesson and corrects its focus.
Terrorism in Pakistan has become a major and highly destructive phenomenon in recent years. The whole world looks at Pakistan,as a land of terrorists. Main reason being an exploitation through the religious leaders and reaction of the military operations both internally as well as externally.
The post-9/11 War on Terrorism in Pakistan has had two principal elements: the government’s battle with jihad groups banned after the attacks in New York, and the U.S. pursuit of Al-Qaeda, usually (but not always) in co-operation with Pakistani forces.
In 2004, the Pakistani army launched a pursuit of Al-Qaeda members in the mountainous area of Waziristan on the Afghan border, although sceptics question the sincerity of this pursuit. Clashes there erupted into a low-level conflict with Islamic militants and local tribesmen, sparking the Waziristan War. A short-lived truce known as the Waziristan accord was brokered in September 2006, which indicated Pakistan’s reluctance to fight Islamic militia. Terrorist attacks staged in Pakistan have killed over 35,000 people, 5,000 of which are law enforcement personnel, and caused material damage to the Pakistani economy totalling $67 billion.
8. Overpopulation, Inflation, Unemployment
According to official news Pakistani has an estimated 2% growth rate which for a country of official population of 160 Million turns out to be roughly around3.2 Million every year. This alarming growth rate is causing immense pressure on head of the families who are to support them.
Given that about 40% of the population is already living under poverty line and 5.6% (official figures) of the population is unemployed, the ever growing population of Pakistan is just adding to the problems of the already under pressure nation.
9. Economy Crisis:
In 1947, Pakistan had 30 million people with per capita income of 100$. Agriculture accounted for almost 50% of economic output with hardly any manufacturing, as all industries were located in India. Therefore, it was unable to feed 30 million people and was dependent on PL-480 imports from the USA. From thereon, Pakistan has come a long way.
Today with 170 million people, our per capita income in 2008 was 1000$ which was ten times more. Out of every hundred rupees of our national income, we consume 85 rupees and save only 15 rupees, which means that the amount of money which is available to invest for economic growth and advancement is too little. Because to grow by 6%, you need at least 24-25% investment rate. In 1990, Pakistan’s share was 0.2% of the world trade. After 20 years it has come down to 0.12% in a very buoyant world economy.
10. Health Issues:
Pakistan is facing a health crisis with rising rates of heart disease, diabetes, obesity, and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which disproportionately affect poor families, with possible side effects of disability and premature death, and worsening poverty as people pay for medical treatment out of their own pockets.
the World Health Organization (WHO) reported 4 million cases of diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, and skin conditions that had largely resulted from the flood conditions. Cholera outbreaks have also been reported from flood-affected areas. From Oct. 15 to 22, WHO reported about 258,000 consultations for pneumonia, diarrhea, and suspected malaria. Furthermore, dreaded diseases such as dengue and Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fevers have been reported from the field, along with measles encephalitis and neonatal tetanus
Yousuf Raza Gilani was speaking during high-level talks aimed at preventing a mass health crisis. The UN says more than 17 million people have been affected by the floods, with about 1.2 million homes destroyed.